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Soybeans

Web Admin RSA

Before the 1990s, boiled soybeans were known as morning or afternoon snacks that were usually served in homes. As the time changes, the high-protein snack begins to disappear from the dining table.

As a food, many people do not really understand the quality of soybeans. It used to be if anyone ate soybean stew is considered ndeso or katro. Soybeans are often labeled as cheap food.

In fact, among other types of beans, soy is a source of protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, and fiber is best. Soy is also able to help maintain kidney health, heart disease, diabetes, rheumatism, anemia, hypertension, diarrhea, and hepatitis.

According to the lecturer at the Department of Food Science and Technology Faculty of Agricultural Technology Bogor Agricultural University, Sugiyono, soy contains 40 percent protein, oil (20 percent), carbohydrates (35 percent), and ash or minerals (4.9 percent). Soy protein contains many lysine amino acids, but contains little amino acid methionine and cystine. These amino acids are the essential amino acids the body needs.

Although soy lacks amino acid methionine and cystine, according to Sugiyono, eating foods made from soybean is very useful to meet the needs of protein. The deficiencies of the essential acids of methionine and cystine can be adequately met through the rice we eat everyday.

"Nutritional content in food is not perfect. That is why we are required to eat a diverse and balanced diet, that is to complement each other, "said Sugiyono. (Lusiana Indriasari)

Simple

Although the shape is small, soy can be processed into a variety of food products. Traditional food as we know it today, namely tofu, tempeh, soy sauce, tauco, soy milk, tofu curry, oncom, tempe gembus, and others made from soybeans.

How to process soybeans is quite simple. Tofu is made from soybeans soaked and then ground with additional water. After that, the soybean mill is heated and then filtered to extract the juice, commonly called soy or soy milk.

This soybean extract is then coagulated with a clumping of tofu, which is calcium sulphate or vinegar so that the protein clumps. These protein clumps are then printed into tofu.

Soybean can also be fermented into tempe, soy sauce, or tauco. To make tempe, soy peeled peeled and then boiled until slightly soft. Soybeans are then drained while cooled. After being given yeast, the soybeans are wrapped in leaves or plastic given small holes. This process takes 2-3 days for all soybeans to be tempeh.

The making of tauco and soy sauce is almost the same. After peeled and soaked, soybeans are given yeast of soy sauce or yeast fungus and left for 2-3 days. Once the soybean is overgrown with mushrooms then dried and then soaked with salt water for a month or more. In order to be soy sauce or tauco, the soybeans are then squeezed, the juice is taken, and added with the spices to be soy sauce and tauco.

Sugiyono added, soy is now not only processed into traditional foods, such as tofu, tempeh, oncom, tauco, or soy sauce. Through different processes, soybeans can be processed into one of baby food raw materials, soy milk, oil, lecithin, even artificial meat. This artificial meat is widely used restaurant that provides a menu for vegetarians.

Soy milk

In addition to tempe and tofu, a product that is not less popular today is soy milk. Soy milk is often considered to help maintain a healthy body.

Now soy milk is easily found in supermarkets, packaged in plastic, bottles, and cartons. Soy milk is also sold around the residential complex.

The composition of soy milk is similar to cow's milk. Therefore, soy milk can be used as a substitute for cow's milk, especially for those who are allergic to lactose in cow's milk. Toddlers only need two glasses of soy milk to meet 30 percent of protein needs a day.

Even so, soy milk does not contain vitamin B12 and its mineral content, especially calcium, is less than cow's milk. Therefore, usually the factory-produced soy milk is always supplemented with minerals and vitamins.

Advances in technology also make soybeans a material used in medicine. Lecithin in soybean oil, for example, is made into an infusion for the treatment of coronary heart disease.

One of the obstacles to why soy products are not much preferred by people is the smell that langu. Sugiyono said, the smell of soybean in the soybean comes from the hydrolysis reaction of unsaturated fatty acids by lipoxygenase enzyme. This reaction produces volatile compounds.

"The odor can be reduced by a warming that can activate the enzyme. Smell can also be reduced by adding a little whiting, "said Sugiyono.

SOYBEAN CONTENTS

Although based on the same, processed products from soybean have different nutrient content. Lecturer at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Bogor Institute of Agriculture, Sugiyono, said, to determine the nutritional value of a food should be measured with certain content levels, such as protein content, fat content, certain vitamin levels, fiber content, other.

The nutritional value of a food should also be linked to the purpose of eating it. For people who are on a diet, foods that are low in fat are considered better than high-fat foods. Conversely, for those who lack energy is better to eat foods high in fat.

Products made from soybeans, according to Sugiyono, generally have relatively high protein content. Tofu basically consists of protein and water so that high protein content. Meanwhile, tempe contains not only high protein, but also contains fat, vitamins, minerals, and has good digestibility.

Soy and soy milk contain less protein and fat (protein content and fat content less than 5 percent). Tauco contains protein and fat from soybeans. Bean curd contains high protein and fat.

Overall, according to Sugiyono, among the products above, tempe has protein content, fat content, mineral content, vitamin levels, fiber content, and high digestibility. The levels of antigenic substances in tempeh are also low. The lower the anti-nutrient, the better the nutrient content in a food.

Storage

Soy products have different durability as well as how to store them. Tofu should be kept in the refrigerator and can last for several days. At room temperature, know can only hold half a day or one day.

"If you know can hold more than one day at room temperature, likely to know it has been given preservatives," said Sugiyono. Soy milk is also not durable. For that soy milk should be stored immediately in the refrigerator after purchased or made, except soy milk products that have been sterilized in the packaging.

The tempe, oncom, and tempe gembus can hold for one or two days at room temperature. Tempeh should be stored in the refrigerator so it can stand for several days.

Soy sauce and tauco can be durable at room temperature. If the tauco has been opened the packaging should be stored in the refrigerator. Flower tofu, baby food, snacks, and artificial meat can also be stored at room temperature as it is dry and durable. Likewise with soybean oil.


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